Depression and its treatment

Mood naturally fluctuates and everyone experiences highs and lows in their lives But in some cases changes in mood can become long-lasting Debilitating and can impair someone’s ability to hold down a job, or sustain meaningful relationships It’s estimated that around 10 percent of people will at some point in their lives suffer from depression a mood disorder characterized by several symptoms feeling sad Distressed Unmotivated Excessively tired And losing interest in once pleasurable activities known as anhedonia Many people with depression also suffer from anxiety Neuroimaging studies reveal that many brain circuits that normally regulate mood are dysregulated in depression Located deep within the brain the amygdala processes highly salient stimuli such as rewards and potential threats In depression the amygdala is overactive and responds excessively to negative events In turn the amygdala connects to a set of brain regions that hone the physiological and behavioral Response to emotional stimuli these areas include the medial prefrontal cortex the nucleus accumbens the hippocampus and the insula The hippocampus is involved in memory formation and along with the prefrontal cortex is particularly vulnerable to the effects of stress Depressed people are more susceptible to stress which can cause physical changes in the brain including atrophy of the hippocampus This and other changes in depressed people may cause inappropriate responses to emotional events The medial prefrontal cortex is involved in regulating how strongly we react to emotional stimuli Treatments such as antidepressant drugs cognitive behavioral therapy and electroconvulsive therapy affect the structure and function of these and other brain regions Animal models such as mice are critical in helping us understand the cellular and molecular changes underlying depression and develop better treatments Although it’s impossible to know if a mouse is depressed My subjected to chronic stress show some symptoms similar to depressed humans Such as anxiety like behavior less social interaction and a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities While not all human depression is triggered by stress these models may still shed light on the biology of depression and they’re the closest scientists can get while studying mice as With humans chronic stress in mice can lead to atrophy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex Mouse studies have also shown altered neuronal plasticity in various brain regions including the hippocampus prefrontal cortex amygdala and nucleus accumbens In a healthy hippocampus Experiences can lead to changes in the connections between neurons resulting in learning these changes are referred to as plasticity chronic stress can reduce this plasticity Healthy brains also continue to produce new neurons in one part of the hippocampus These new neurons slowly mature and integrate into the circuitry where they have a strong effect on hippocampal activity and behavior These new neurons are also affected by stress. They reduced in number in stressed brains These effects may result from reduced levels of neurotrophins proteins that increase neuronal growth and plasticity Reduced plasticity may stop the hippocampus from being able to properly regulate the stress response Which may lead to a vicious cycle where stress perpetuates more stress The hippocampus is particularly affected But there can be reductions in plasticity elsewhere in the brain and together these changes could contribute to other symptoms of depression like an dona Whether these cellular changes seen in mice are involved in human depression remains unclear Most antidepressants available today rapidly increase the amount of the neurotransmitters serotonin and/or norepinephrine in the synapse However improvements in symptoms in patients and mice usually don’t occur until weeks after starting the treatment While the reasons for this delay aren’t fully understood Prolonged treatment with antidepressants can over time act to reverse some of the changes induced by chronic stress increasing neurotrophins expression and rebooting hippocampal plasticity Non-chemical treatments for depression including electroconvulsive shock also promote, hippocampal plasticity in mice Antidepressant treatment can also reverse stress induced changes in other areas of the brain including the prefrontal cortex and reward circuitry different treatments may target different regions to improve symptoms Recently the drug ketamine was found to have rapid antidepressant Effects in patients with depression as well as in rodent models with effects lasting for days the mechanism behind This is an area of active research Ketamine blocks a type of synaptic transmission Leading to activation of a number of signaling pathways an increasing neurotrophins expression these molecular changes result in increased plasticity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and likely contribute to ketamine’s behavioural effects By studying the changes in the brain caused by chronic stress And how antidepressants like ketamine work to reverse them? Researchers may find new targets for treatment or new drugs that could act more quickly More specifically or more effectively than currently available treatments