How much sugar are you feeding your horse?


DR. LYDIA GRAY: So
we’re going to talk a little bit about sugar and
find out why you’re all here. And so we’ll talk a little bit
and then we’ll do this demo. And then we’re going to
make, if there’s time, a human sugar flowchart. I’ve also never
done that before. It may go horribly wrong. Hopefully, no one gets injured. You guys have insurance,
so we’re all set. OK. What do you guys think is
the number one question I get asked as the
staff veterinarian slash medical director at
SmartPak from the industry? What do you think is the number
one question I get asked? You think about it. From the William Rabies
Equestrian Group, what do you guys
think is the number one question I get asked? AUDIENCE: How much
is too much sugar? DR. LYDIA GRAY: She says
how much is too much sugar. You’re very close. Any ideas? AUDIENCE: Weight? Like the horse’s weight? DR. LYDIA GRAY: What
is my horse’s weight? Body. Yeah, that’s it. Yeah. Yeah. I don’t get asked a lot to
evaluate people’s horses unless I’m on site. But, Yeah, sure. Do you guys have any ideas? I’m thinking you’re
going to think I get asked about joint
supplements or something. It’s actually how much
sugar is in x supplement that I buy from you? Now, x supplement
is– how many of you were on get SmartPak packs,
get supplements, use them for your horse? Not a lot of you. Well– so these are
called SmartPaks. And the supplement
is in the SmartPak and you peel and
pour it, all that. You go to the booth to
get the whole story. But I want you to notice
this is a daily serving. It’s not very much. So the takeaway today, I
understand if you have to leave and you have to be somewhere in
20 minutes, so you might only stay for the first part. The takeaway is don’t get
stressed about the amount of sugar in a supplement. Because you compare this
amount to the amount of hay that your horse gets a day. How much hay does your
horse eat per day? AUDIENCE: Depends on
their body weight. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Say it louder. AUDIENCE: Depends on their
body weight, but 1% to 2% is what we do. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh, my gosh,
this woman, you’re hired. She says 1% to 2% of
the body weight per day. So if it’s 1,000– the magic
1,000 pound horse, right? It’s 10 to 20 pounds of hay. And I– OK. And we’re– I weigh my hay. I enjoy weighing hay and
10 to 20 pounds of hay is a lot of hay. So you look at that
and hay can be anywhere from 10% to 15%, 20% sugar. That’s a lot more sugar
than a supplement that’s announced two ounces whatever. So the key takeaway
is think more about the sugar in your
hay that your horse’s diet is based on than about a
little bit in a supplement, OK? We all agree? That’s the point? All right. Now I need 10 volunteers. I’m going to pick you
because I know you. OK. So you’re 1. I need 9 volunteers. So what you’ll do is you’ll
come down and the only– well, you can come through here, or
you can walk around, whichever. I don’t care. But I need you to come and
sort of congregate here. What we’re going to do is– now, remember, I’ve
never done this before. I feel like it’s a magic trick. Oh, here we go. I’ve got the Ziploc
bags full of sugar. And if you can’t see,
please come closer. But some have very
little sugar, right? And some have a lot of sugar. So what these guys
are going to do is they’re each going
to come up and grab one of these bags of
sugar, and then they’re going to look at these
other Ziploc bags that are things like grass hay. This is a carrot. Very good. This is a apple. You guys are doing great. And here I have peppermints. OK. There’s some grains
here, some multivitamins. Oh, here’s an alfalfa hay. So they’re going to try to
match the Ziploc bag of sugar with the actual product. And when they get done, I’m
going to tell you what this is and what the typical
daily serving is. So this isn’t a daily
serving of hay, right? This is a representative
that fit in the bags that they bought. But we talked already
of the horses we get 10 to 20 pounds of hay so– OK. I had– and I was
going to run this like the Price Is Right with
the music and, you know, come on down, you’re
the first contestant. But I had so much trouble
getting this microphone to work that I ran out of
time to get the music cued up. So just hum it in your
head and then come on down. So start on this end maybe. Come this way. AUDIENCE: Are we doing this
as a group or individually? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yeah, yeah. And you can phone a friend. I’m sort of mixing
my game shows. But talk to the audience. Talk to your friends and
everyone just grab one bag. All right, what should we talk
about while they’re doing that? What questions do you guys have? Yes. AUDIENCE: Can you talk a
little bit about beet pulp? Is it good for
your horse or not? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh, so
she wants me to talk about beet pulp for 3 minutes. That is no problem. Anyone who knows me
knows I love beet pulp. My horse loves beet pulp. I tend to soak it. You don’t have to. There’s a lot of rumors about
beet pulp that, oh my god, it will cause horses to choke. No, not really. The nutritional profile of beet
pulp is between grain and hay. So it’s got
characteristics of both. And it tends to serve
as a soluble fiber. And the bacteria in the
hind gut ferment it, and it produces
energy and calories in a very safe, cool fashion as
opposed to being high in sugar and being the Pixy
Stix that we get if you feed horses this, right? So it’s great for horses
that can’t have sugar, like horses with equine
metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, Cushing’s, that
are prone to laminitis, that have certain muscle or,
like, metabolic diseases. PSSM would be great. Just if you’re an easy keeper
or you tend to be overweight, it’s a superfood. It’s also good for horses
that don’t have good teeth and can’t chew, maybe
long stem forage anymore, and horses that
need to gain weight. So the hard keepers, I find
that thoroughbreds do really well on beet pulp. Who here uses beet pulp? Pretty much one person in
each area, that’s interesting. By the end of the talk,
we’ll aim to double that– so two people in the area. So that’s 3 minutes. AUDIENCE: OK. DR. LYDIA GRAY: So AUDIENCE: We’re done. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Someone
make a dong or a bong. Yeah. Is everyone done? AUDIENCE: I think so. DR. LYDIA GRAY: OK. AUDIENCE: I think we all agree. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Who was the 8– AUDIENCE: So we worked together. DR. LYDIA GRAY: So you’re
going to have to stand so that the– yeah, oh goodness. All right, so we’ve put
the– you know what? Did you all see this? My cheat sheet was
laying right here. AUDIENCE: No, we didn’t see it. We didn’t look. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Really? OK. AUDIENCE: We did not look. We didn’t see it. DR. LYDIA GRAY: I did, I had it. OK. So A is– whoops, they’ve
got it on the wrong thing. A goes with the ration balancer. AUDIENCE: Oh. DR. LYDIA GRAY: The person
who did this for me– God bless her soul. She’s so busy, but she
still did me this favor– didn’t put how much was in here. I’m going to go with 1/2 cup. It’s a 1/2 a cup,
like 8, 4 ounces with a 2 pound daily
serving of ration balancer– now what the heck is
a ration balancer? Let’s start with this. Who feeds a ration balancer? Nobody here? Two people here and one here. Do you want to
explain what it is? Like, you can tell
me and then I’ll– because I have,
like, six mics on. AUDIENCE: You have it
scaled so the horse is getting a balanced diet and
there’s no nutrients lacking. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Perfect. So what she said is the ration
balancer completes and balances the diet in terms of protein,
or amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. And it bridges the gap that your
hay might not completely fill. So it would be fed instead
of grain, because grain provides sugar and calories. And ration balancers just
provide the nutrients. Are we good with that? OK, so that’s the
ration balancer. And that is A. As I
reveal the answers, I’ll have you hold them
so they’re off the table. OK, so we’re left with these
SmartCookies that are homeless. OK, next we have B, very
little sugar, right? Like, not even a
tablespoon goes with– so close, so close. AUDIENCE: Carrot. DR. LYDIA GRAY:
Yeah, the carrot. People get really freaked out
about feeding their horses carrots. And you don’t need to be. You can feed your
horse a carrot. And it’s fine. What you maybe shouldn’t
do for the horse that has a sugar, a
carbohydrate intolerance, is feed a bag of carrots. That might not be fine. And it’s also not necessary. I have a 1,500 pound horse. He’s stocky. And he gets two baby carrots. And he thinks he’s,
like, the king. So you don’t have to
feed a bag of carrots. I mean, this is a large carrot. But less than a
tablespoon, there you go. All right, C, remember
how this was– we already saw this one. This is also a small amount. That’s almost the
same as that one. This one goes with
the SmartCookies. So they told me a
serving was 4 ounces. And this is SmartPak’s
brand of treat. I’ll hold it up. There you go. And they come in large. The large pellets, they look
like hay stretcher pellets. That’s 4 ounces is
this much sugar. And I think this is– I don’t give my horse that
many treats in a week. And he’s a good boy. So again, I went to a talk, it
may have been here years ago. And the person was
like, we have this pony. And he keeps foundering. And we can’t figure it out. And it’s a problem. And we’ve tried everything. So I was asking him about diet,
and exercise, and turnout, and medications. Turns out I was deep
diving, drilling down, they fed him a 1 pound bag
of peppermint candies a day. AUDIENCE: Oh my. DR. LYDIA GRAY: And I’m
like, you know what? I think I’ve hit
upon the reason. So that was just
way too much sugar. OK. Next one is– let’s go with
E. Well, I’ll tell you what. These guys did a great job. Because I don’t know
if these are right. We’ll see. They’re very close. They did. These really big bags of
sugar, which is like 2 pounds– feels like maybe 2 and 1/2– goes with the hay. And did she say how
much hay she’s feeding? So this represents
20 pounds of hay. This is how much sugar
is in 20 pounds of hay. That’s why you soak your hay to
horses that can’t have sugar. And what are the
rules of soaking? Like, what’s the time? AUDIENCE: What about steaming? DR. LYDIA GRAY: No. I’ll tell you why. Who soaks their hay? All right, how long
do you soak it? AUDIENCE: It depends,
30 to an hour. DR. LYDIA GRAY: OK. So good, 30 minutes in hot water
and 60 minutes in cold water. And then you just feed the
hay, but not the syrup water that you have made. Because that is delicious
and dangerous, the two Ds. But what you’re trying to
do is leach out the sugar. By soaking, you can
reduce a hay’s sugar 20% to 30%, which is significant. Because what’s the amount that
most experts, veterinarians and nutritionists, want
the percent of NSC? We’ll get to what NCS means. Us asked me about sugars. AUDIENCE: Under 12? DR. LYDIA GRAY:
Yeah, under 12, 12%. So if you have
your hay analyzed, which I highly recommend,
and it’s 15%, 18%, 20% NSC, it might not be the 20%. That’s too much. But if it’s, you know, in
the high teens, soak it. And then it’s less than 12%. And you can feel much
better about feeding that to your horse who is
sugar sensitive, OK? If I see something that– a lot of you are beginning to
look, like, almost overwhelmed. I’m happy to rewind, happy to
say it again a different way, happy to slow down. But you got to tell me, so. Yes. AUDIENCE: Can your feeding
create a sugar sensitivity in a horse? DR. LYDIA GRAY:
Her question was, can your feeding create a
sugar sensitivity in a horse? It’s not that it creates it. It’s that it expresses it. The gene is in there. And by feeding
that gene sugar, it expresses itself in
equine metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance,
Cushing’s disease, laminitis. So I said the same thing you
did, but a different way. That was a really good question. OK, so we did the SmartCookies. You can just have those. There you go. Merry Christmas. OK. And we did the two hays. They’re very heavy. And there you go. You’re doing great. All right, so they put K with
that digestive supplement. And can you see how
much is in here? You were so close. Some of these are so close. It doesn’t matter. But this is maybe 2 tablespoons. And that’s what’s in the
digestive supplement. And so you compare
this amount of sugar– give me a hay sugar– with this. Do you see how this
doesn’t matter, because you’re feeding this? OK. Hay. AUDIENCE: How much do
you feed of [INAUDIBLE]?? AUDIENCE: And how much– yeah,
I was just going to say– DR. LYDIA GRAY: This
is a daily serving. AUDIENCE: Daily. AUDIENCE: That’s a 60 gram. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yup. AUDIENCE: That’s 60 grams? DR. LYDIA GRAY: 60 grams, yup. Yup. AUDIENCE: Wow. DR. LYDIA GRAY: So there you go. OK. I heard a question. Oh, she’s over there. We can’t see you. You’re behind. You’re behind. AUDIENCE: When she asked you
about feeding and the horse with the gene– DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yup. AUDIENCE: –how
long did that take? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh,
so this lady wants to know if you feed
sugar to a horse who has the gene to be
sugar sensitive, how long will it take? I don’t know that
that’s been studied. I’m happy to put out a guess,
except I’m being videoed. I’m going to go with a
couple months to a year. Yeah. All right, here’s one
you’ve got paired up. You’ve got D paired with the
Senior Complete Feed, so close. So this is what,
like a 1/2 cup maybe? No? Lower? Up, more? Like, 3/4 of a cup? OK. And that goes with a daily
serving of fortified grain. This isn’t the daily serving. This is a representation. But a daily serving of a
fortified grain is like 3 to 5 to 7 pounds. And you get 3/4, she tells
me, of a cup of sugar. So horses that are
sugar sensitive are not supposed to have
simple carbohydrates, should not have fortified grain. It simply contains
too much sugar. OK, she’s nodding. Can everybody nod? Yes, we agree. We agree to that. OK, who doesn’t have a bag? You don’t have a bag. All right, now I have
Sweet Feed, which is kind of a giveaway, right? Because it has
sweet in the name. They should maybe
call it sugar feed. These guys said H. And it’s not. It’s actually F. So this is Sweet Feed. What is Sweet Feed? Who feeds this? No shaming here, but
who feeds Sweet Feet? There might be a little shaming. Oh. Sweet Feed is, you can
see, oats and corn. And then there’s a
nutritional pellet in here with vitamins,
minerals, and protein and, also, sugar in
the form of molasses. And how much? 2 cups, cup and 1/2? Yeah, this is my expert here. She can eyeball the sugar
and see how much is in it. So that’s what you’re giving
your horse each day if you feed the full serving, OK? I know. Do you even want to hold it? Ugh. [LAUGHTER] All right, they
had put this one– what? Oh, question. Thank you. AUDIENCE: The Sweet
Feed, [INAUDIBLE] corn, stuff like
that, is that OK? DR. LYDIA GRAY:
She wants to know if Sweet Feed that you feed
to mare, a pregnant mare, or a mare with a foal is– OK. So why do you feed Sweet Feed? Let’s start there. AUDIENCE: To gain weight. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Say it again? AUDIENCE: To gain weight. DR. LYDIA GRAY: To gain
weight, to add calories. And in the horse that
is not sugar sensitive, is not carbohydrate intolerant,
calories in the form of sugar is very effective. It builds weight. Now, mares have big jobs. They’re either growing foals
or they’re making milk. In fact, even more than a horse
in heavy work, whether you’re a racehorse or eventer,
the mare making milk midway through the foal’s life demands
the most calories of anything a horse does in its entire life. So Sweet Feed is a great way
to get those calories in. Mares can not get
all the calories they need from hay alone. But if the horse is
sensitive to sugar, if she’s going to develop
laminitis or has equine metabolic syndrome
or Cushing’s– can’t have it. It’s just too much sugar. So this is the Senior
Feed or the Complete Feed. And this is how much sugar
in it, which what do you want to say, 3, 3 cups? OK. And it seems higher than the–
can you hold that sugar up from the Sweet Feed? It seems higher than
this, because you’re feeding 5 pounds of that. You’re feeding 15 to
20 pounds of this. That says 10 pounds. This says 17 pounds, so
almost twice as much. So that’s why. But I just wanted
you to know that. OK, so we’re out of people. So we’re back to you. Oh, let’s do the peppermints. The peppermints are J.
So the peppermints– 1/2 cup? 1/2 cup do you think? But that’s that
many peppermints. Peppermints are 100% sugar
with peppermint oil flavoring. I don’t give my
horse peppermints. That is off his menu. He does get prunes. That’s a different story. All right, can you
give these to– I’ll give them to you. Oh, here’s the apple. What was the apple? The apple was G. Oh my gosh,
you guys got this right. [LAUGHTER] So this is maybe 2 tablespoons
in the apple, all right? I think we’re back to here. There you go. What did I leave? I left the multivitamin
supplement. You know, all the
supplements are the same. They’re just not high in sugar. That is just not
something they contain. I mean, it’s going to
vary from what it is and who made it,
the brand and that. But in general,
they’re not like– I need a hay person
to hold up your hay. They’re not like this
or the Sweet Feed. You’re not going to get
that in a supplement. OK. So you guys can put those down. Let’s give a round of applause. They did great. [APPLAUSE] Yes? AUDIENCE: I got two questions. DR. LYDIA GRAY: OK. AUDIENCE: Does grass
pasture equal hay? DR. LYDIA GRAY: No. His first question is, does
grass pasture equal grass hay? The answer is no, because
grass pastures is going to have pretty high water content. Grass hay is dried. It’s about 90% dry matter. And so it’s more concentrated,
whereas the grass pasture is diluted. Now, I could talk for
a half a day on grass. Because right now is really
dangerous time for grass. Because it’s sunny
during the day– well, it was sunny yesterday. And then the nights
are freezing. So back in fifth
grade science, they taught us about photosynthesis. Anybody remember? You do? OK, the lady who feeds
Sweet Feed remembers. The plants use sunshine and
air and water to make sugar. And then during the night
when the sun goes away, they use up the sugar to grow
and make seeds and flowers or whatever plant business
needs to be taken care of. And then in the morning,
the sugar in the grass is very low, except when
it gets cold like this. When it freezes at night,
they don’t use up the sugar. They store it. They’re like, oh, brr, winter. So they start the next
day with all that sugar they made the last day. And they just keep
increasing until full winter, and they die. So this time of year,
everyone knows spring grass– bad, right? Fall grass– worse. There’s a lot of horses
that founder in the fall. And people are
scratching their head. That’s why. So be as scared if you
have a susceptible horse to grass pasture in the
fall as you are in spring. So that was your first question. What was your second question? AUDIENCE: Whole oats– like,
whole oats versus other foods? DR. LYDIA GRAY:
Oh, you know what? I thought about that. He asked, how does
whole oats compare here? Whole oats is better than corn. I wouldn’t feed a horse corn. It does have a fair
amount of sugar, but here’s the
really cool thing. And that’s why carrots and
apples are not off my list. Oats, especially whole
oats, and whole vegetables like this and fruit,
they come with not just the simple carbohydrates. But they come with the complex
carbohydrates or fiber. Another word for that
is non-structural. Structural is fiber. Non-structural
carbohydrates is sugars. And it turns out when you
add a fiber to a sugar, the fiber blunts the sugar. So that’s why I can
feed my horse prunes, which are quite high in
sugar, but they’re also quite high in fiber. So instead of having a
sugar spike and then a low, it is more like this. It’s blunted. Does that make sense? Raise your hand if you
think that made sense. That’s pretty good. Raise your hand if you
think it didn’t make sense. I’m OK. OK, good. Right. So the next thing I want to
try, because you guys are a great audience,
I’m going to try to make a human carbohydrate
flowchart, right? Who’s with me? Because I think you,
you have to come down. Because you asked the question. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yeah, but
you asked the question, so I’m doing this for you. And you’ll learn more if you’re
in it, if you’re engaged. So I need 10 more people. AUDIENCE: I’m still confused
about how much sugar is in oats. DR. LYDIA GRAY: It’s less
than the fortified grains and sweet feeds. His question was– I didn’t do a good job
answering his oats question. So he’s too nice
to say it that way. But he wants to know,
OK, lady, but how much sugar is actually in oats? And the answer is less
than the fortified grains and sweet feeds,
but more than, like, the carrots and apples
and the supplements and more than beet pulp, which
I don’t have here either. 1, 2, 3, 4. I need six more people. OK. Now, just to make it
look great, can you put out your arms, everybody,
so like a flow chart? So I need– yeah. So back up a little bit. Your arm comes to her. So you see how this works? Does it look like a flow chart? Like, raise your hand up. She’s the head carbohydrate. All right, so
you’re touching her. Great. Yeah. Perfect. OK, so you’ve got who
touches who, right? You see it? OK, put your arms down,
because I know that’s hard. So the lady in the
back– raise your hand– she is carbohydrate
with a capital C. OK. All right, the next two– raise your hand. And you raise your hand. All right, she’s
structural carbohydrate. She’s a fiber. She’s bulky stool. She’s what makes the
stool gives– sorry. She’s what makes the stool work. She’s what keeps
your– wait, she’s what keeps your
intestines healthy, right? Let’s give her a hand. Thank you so much. [APPLAUSE] OK, put your hand down. You, on the other hand, are
non-structural carbohydrates. So somebody asked me– go
ahead, put your hand down– what NSC meant. NSC stands for
Non-Structural Carbohydrates. That’s when we said,
what should hay be? And we said 12%. And if it’s higher than
that, soak it or sell it. Soak it or sell it. I love it. Write that down. That’s really good. That’s her, OK? Now, if you’re a
Non-Structural Carbohydrate, you have three choices. You, my friend,
are a simple sugar. You are very bad. [LAUGHTER] You are a starch, still bad. You are a fructan. You’re really bad. You go stand over there. We don’t like you at all. Yeah, we’re not going
to speak to you anymore. AUDIENCE: I have no idea. DR. LYDIA GRAY: So anyone
heard of fructans before? AUDIENCE: Say that again? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Fructans,
anyone heard of that term or read it somewhere? Saw it in a magazine? Really? OK. So there’s researchers
actively studying why horses develop
laminitis or founder. And they think it might
be because of a type of non-structural carbohydrate,
not sugar, not starch, but fructan, a very,
very specific– F-R-U-C-T-A-N, fructan. Well, this is your homework. So you came to Equine Affaire. And you thought,
I’m going to shop. I’m going to see horses. I’m going to watch clinics. You didn’t know you were
going to have homework. Sorry. So look it up. Yup. Read about it. Wikipedia is your friend. It’s a very accurate
source actually. So now let’s go on this side. So our fiber back here, our
structural carbohydrate. Do you know why they call
it structural carbohydrate? Yeah, because she is the one
not only keeps you regular. She’s the one that allows
plants to stand up. She gives plants their form. You’re wonderful. We like you. OK. From her, there’s this
non-digestible fiber. It’s called lignin. That passes clean on through. There’s no nutrition from it. It is bulk, pure and simple. You dressed perfect for it. [LAUGHTER] This lady here is
digestible fiber. Raise your hand up. Digestible fiber, we like her. In fact, of all these people,
she is the most popular. She’s the best person. She’s the cool one. You want to be friends with her. OK. And here’s why. She’s called digestible
fiber, because it’s not the horse breaking down the
icky bad sugars and starches and fructans and perhaps
causing laminitis and equine metabolic syndrome and
all those bad things. The bacteria, the good
bugs in the hind gut, are digesting this
fiber and making cool calories and very
safe energy for the horse to use for calories. For your pregnant mare
and nursing mare question, if you can feed
digestible fiber, that would be ideal, very safe. Nothing bad’s going to happen. From the digestible
fiber, there’s a couple of different kinds. They don’t matter. They’re both wonderful people. So this group right here, you
could call these people beet pulp. Very safe, great energy
source, adds calories without any danger. We really like these people. So ask me your
carbohydrate questions. Yes, lady in purple. I can’t hear you at all. Sorry. AUDIENCE: So you can get
beet pulp with molasses. Would you stay away
from the molasses? DR. LYDIA GRAY: I got it. Her question is, there’s
two kinds of beet pulp. There’s beet pulp with molasses
and beet pulp without molasses. Really interesting fact,
the beet pulp with molasses actually has less sugar than
the beet pulp without molasses. I know. You’re like what? So why is that? The reason is when the molasses
is taken out of the beet pulp, the way it’s processed,
some is added back in, actually more than what
was in there to begin with. So you want the less
processed beet pulp. Now, I just have
a little bit more, and then I can
answer your question. There are people who
soak their beet pulp, nothing wrong with that. They don’t only soak it. They drain it. And so when I’m talking
about soaking hay, I mean, soak the
hay and drain it. OK, OK. So there’s people who
soak the beet pulp and drain it and squeeze it. And they rinse it. And the main thing, no sugar. OK. AUDIENCE: That was my– DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh. Do you want to ask it so I
can answer it and look smart? AUDIENCE: Yeah, yeah. Absolutely. DR. LYDIA GRAY: OK. AUDIENCE: Yeah. So we soak our beet pulp. And then we don’t use what’s
left in the bottom of the bowl. We just feed that. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yeah. So she’s feeding even
less sugar, yeah. Yeah, that’s fine. OK. You get one more
question, then– yeah. AUDIENCE: Going along the
same thing, beet pulp, you said earlier,
has weight gain. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yes. AUDIENCE: But then you
answered questions where weight gain is not desirable. DR. LYDIA GRAY:
No, you’re making assumptions the wrong way. So beet pulp can
be used as a weight gain in horses that are
hard keepers, but it’s not weight gain– remember, this is
my beet pulp group. It’s not weight gain from sugar. It’s weight gain from
the fermentable fiber. And so when you ferment
fiber to make, like, beer, it produces what’s called
volatile fatty acids– doesn’t matter. But it’s a really great
source of energy in the horse. And so it adds
calories very safely. It won’t pack on
pounds like fat. Because if you have, say, a
thoroughbred off the track– oh, I must have said
something really good, because she’s
taking a note here. If you have a thoroughbred off
the track and you’re doing, you know, four star advanced
three-day eventing with him, so he’s already a hard keeper,
you know, showing some ribs. And you’re burning a lot
of calories conditioning and competing. That horse needs some calories. And probably you’re going
to want to feed fat. I would feed beet pulp, too. But so beet pulp, don’t think
of it as packing on pounds. Think of it as a healthy way
to maintain healthy weight. I know I used healthy
a lot in that sentence, but don’t be scared
of beet pulp. And you can feed it in
a little bit or a lot. So feed it like you salt
things, salt to taste. You know, feed to taste. Yeah. Yes. AUDIENCE: Can you
feed a supplement with fat along with beet pulp? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Sure. Her question was, can you
feed a supplemental fat along with the beet pulp? Yeah, yeah. Like, I had a hard
keeper thoroughbred, and I fed him a little
alfalfa, a little beet pulp, and a little fat. And he did great. Yeah. Plus, it tasted smashing. All right, you
guys, you did great. [APPLAUSE] Thank you so much. She’s up here googling
to make sure I’m not telling tall tales. What other questions
do you have? Oh, wait, wait, wait. There’s a lady with her hand up. She’s very patient, yes. AUDIENCE: How do I
measure sugar in grass over the spring, summer, fall? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh,
her question is– that is a super question. And I didn’t pay you, right? AUDIENCE: Not enough. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh, OK. AUDIENCE: Not enough. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Thank you. Her question is, how do you
measure sugar in the grass throughout the seasons to
know, like, when it’s dangerous and when can I feed. I’ll give you a few
rules of thumbs. But, also, write this down. Everyone get out paper. You want to go to
SaferGrass.org. How many have been
there already? You have. You look like someone who
have been to Safergrass.org. No? SaferGrass.org–
O-R-G. SaferGrass.org. Everything you want to know
about grass is on that website. That lady has devoted
herself to grass. It’s even more than
I want to know, and I want to know
a lot about grass. But to answer your question,
coming out of winter, let’s say, when the
days begin to warm up and the days are above
freezing and it’s sunny, but the nights are still below
freezing, danger Will Robinson, right? That’s bad. So I would keep my horses
off the grass at that time. Once the nights are above
freezing in the spring, you can start introducing
your horse gradually to grass. And my horse wears a grazing
muzzle, like, all the time. He never gets grass
without the muzzle. And we have a video
camera outside my barn. And when he goes thwink
and takes it off, someone runs out there
and puts it back on. Because it’s really important
that he doesn’t eat grass. So then you have the summer. And in the fall, then
it’s the opposite, right? You’re watching the weather. This is a really
bad time of year. Because it froze last
night here, right? I scraped ice on my car. So I would not graze
my horse today. Because today is the
first day I think here that the sugar did not
get used up overnight, like I was telling you before. And so in the morning– because the best times to graze
are from 3:00 AM to 10:00 AM. And I like to joke. I’m joking, you guys. I’m joking. That SmartPak is designing a
fence that you set on timer, and the gate opens at 3:00 AM. And then it brings your horses
back in and closes at ten. We’re not, we’re not, we’re not. But wouldn’t that be awesome? So 3:00 AM to 10:00
AM, and that’s the kind of stuff you’ll
find on Katy Watts’ website. It’s totally worth going there. So if you’re working some
day and you’re bored, go check it out. OK, I have time for one
more question, because she’s going to tackle me. You get it, because
you volunteered. Yeah. And I called you by name. AUDIENCE: If Alfalfa hay is
so high in sugar, [INAUDIBLE]?? DR. LYDIA GRAY: Oh, wait. Wait. Her first part was, if alfalfa
hay is so high in sugar– and I didn’t hear the rest,
because I got excited. But alfalfa hay has less
sugar than grass hay. Thank you. Can you nod louder? AUDIENCE: It’s high in protein. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yeah. AUDIENCE: So that helps, too. DR. LYDIA GRAY: Yeah. So alfalfa hay is
high in protein. It’s high in calcium
and some other things. It can be high in sugar. But it generally has lower
sugar than grass hay. AUDIENCE: What
about the pellets? The pellets– DR. LYDIA GRAY: Same. Pellets are the same as the
long stem forage and cubes and– if it’s alfalfa hay. Now, if you buy it in a bag,
then it’s guaranteed analysis. And there’s a label on it. So buying bagged hay, whether
it’s grass or alfalfa, is a really good idea. Because you’re for
sure what it is. If not, you can
always analyze it. But, yeah, I don’t
mind alfalfa hay. Because you’re not feeding 20
pounds of it either, right? Even my thoroughbred who was
getting alfalfa to gain weight was not getting 20 pounds. So, OK, I think I
have to go, right? Yeah. So I’ll answer yours on
your own, yeah, afterwards. But thanks, you guys. And thanks to the volunteers. Let’s give them a hand. [APPLAUSE]