Aneurysms – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! The word aneurysm is based off the Greek word aneurysma, which means “dilation.” And that makes sense because aneurysms […]

Aortic valve disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! The aortic valve is typically made up of three leaflets – the left, right, and posterior leaflet and it […]

Oxygen free radicals & cellular injury – causes, symptoms & pathology

So what exactly is a free radical? It’s a chemical species with an unpaired electron in its outer orbit. One example, and probably actually the most well-known example, is oxygen. Normally oxygen’s got the 4 pairs of electrons here, but in a free-radical situation, it might GAIN an extra electron, so now you’ve got this […]

Fabry disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Fabry disease is a rare X-linked condition caused by mutations or pathogenic variants in the GLA gene that codes for a lysosomal enzyme called alpha galactosidase A or alpha-gal A. The alpha-gal enzyme normally breaks down large molecules called globotriaosylceramide or GL3 and other glycosphingolipids, so that small parts of the big molecules can be […]

Cocaine Dependence – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Cocaine, sometimes called coke, is a powerful psychoactive stimulant that alters how the brain functions – specifically how we perceive our surroundings. Cocaine comes from the leaves of the South American coca plant, and has been used for over a thousand years. In modern times, it’s become a popular “party drug” because cocaine reduces inhibitions […]

Cannabis Use Disorder – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Cannabis, or marijuana, is one of the most popular psychoactive substances worldwide, especially among teenagers. Although the specifics of cannabis’ addictive qualities are still very much under debate, cannabis dependence disorder is officially classified in the DSM-5 and prolonged, heavy use has been shown to cause some level of dependency. Cannabis comes from the flowers […]

Gastric cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Gastric cancer is when malignant or cancerous cells arise in the stomach. This cancer can appear in any part […]

Type IV hypersensitivity (cell-mediated) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Having a hypersensitivity means that someone’s immune system has reacted to something in such a way that it ends […]

Do no harm: Some hospitals let a preventable infection kill their patients

When a plane crashes, it’s kind of a big deal. “Continuing coverage now on the Asiana plane crash investigation.” “Investigators try to figure out what went so terribly wrong.” People freak out. There’s usually a big investigation and a bunch of policy changes to make planes safer. A plane crash investigation committee from several nations […]