Laryngitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With laryngitis, “laryng-” refers to the larynx and “-itis” refers to inflammation. So, laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx, something that especially affects children. It’s further classified into acute if it lasts less than three weeks, and chronic if it lasts more than three weeks. The larynx is located in the upper portion of the […]

Poliomyelitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

In poliomyelitis, also called polio, “polio” refers to the poliovirus, which is an enterovirus that invades the intestines, “myel” refers to the spinal cord which is affected in the disease, and -itis refers to inflammation. So poliomyelitis is an enteroviral disease first enters the body through the intestines, but then spreads and causes nerve injury […]

Dental abscess – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

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Gingivitis and periodontitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With gingivitis, gingiva refers to the gums, and -itis refers to inflammation, so gingivitis is inflammation of the gums. With periodontitis, peri- means around, and odon-, refers to the tooth, so it’s inflammation and destruction of the supporting structures around the teeth. Broadly speaking, the two are on a spectrum starting with simple gingivitis on […]

Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Schizo means split, and phrenia, in this case refers to the mind. Even though schizophrenia can be interpreted to mean “splitting of the mind”, it does not refer to a split personality, like some media sources might portray, but rather schizophrenia describes a scattered or fragmented pattern of thinking. Schizophrenia’s actually a syndrome, meaning there’re […]

Multiple sclerosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord. Myelin is the protective sheath that surrounds the axons of neurons, allowing them to quickly send electrical impulses. This myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, which are a group of cells that support neurons. In multiple sclerosis, […]

Autism – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Even though everyone develops at slightly different paces Almost everyone hits the same general developmental milestones and learns the same sets of skills at about the same time more or less These are things like language and communication socializing cognitive skills like problem-solving and physical milestones like walking crawling and fine motor skills all of […]

Narcolepsy – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

At one time or another you’ve probably had to force yourself to stay awake, maybe while driving or when you’re in a looong lecture. In these situations, you were exerting control over your sleep-wake cycles. Narcolepsy is a disorder in which individuals lose the ability to regulate these sleep-wake cycles, so the normal boundary between […]

Meningitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With meningitis, mening- refers to the meninges which are three protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, and -itis refers to inflammation; so meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. More specifically, it refers to the inflammation of the two inner layers which are called the leptomeninges. The outer layer of the meninges […]

Gout – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Gout is an inflammatory disease in which monosodium urate crystals deposit into a joint, making it red, hot, tender and swollen within hours. When this happens, it’s called a gouty attack. The underlying cause is hyperuricemia—too much uric acid in the blood, which results in the formation of sharp, needle-like crystals, in areas with slow […]