Endometritis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Endometritis is an inflammation of the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. It is usually caused […]

Hypoxia & cellular injury – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

So by this point, you’re probably aware that your body needs oxygen to survive, right? In fact, every cell in your body needs that precious oxygen. Those cells use the oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, a super super important molecule, sometimes even called “the molecular unit of currency”. […]

Gallstones (cholelithiasis) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

When you eat some real fatty foods, like say some delicious french fries, they make their way to through the stomach and into the small intestine. At this point they aren’t really french fries anymore, but since they’re high in fat, they’re still a little more difficult to absorb, and that’s where your gallbladder comes […]

Renal cell carcinoma – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Renal cell carcinomas (or RCC’s) are the most common type of malignant kidney cancer in adults, generally affecting older […]

Brown-Séquard syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Brown-Sequard syndrome, first described by the physiologist Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard, is a condition associated with hemisection or damage to one half of the spinal cord. The hemisection damages neural tracts in the spinal cord that carry information to and from the brain. This results in a loss of sensations like pain, temperature, touch, as well as […]

Anorexia nervosa – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

On our Youtube channel, you’ll find a limited selection of pathology and patient videos. With Osmosis Prime, you’ll get access to over 700 videos including complete coverage of pathology and physiology and a growing collection of pharmacology and clinical reasoning topics. Try it free today. Anorexia nervosa, which is often just called anorexia, is a […]

Polycythemia vera – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

In polycythemia vera, there are increased blood cell levels due to overproduction by the bone marrow, which is a soft tissue found within the bones. Normally, about 45% of the total blood volume is made up of erythrocytes, or red blood cells, and their main function is to carry oxygen to tissues and bring carbon […]

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Posttraumatic stress disorder, also called PTSD, happens when some memory of a past traumatic event—like war or sexual assault—causes recurrent mental and physical distress. Now the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th edition or the DSM 5 categorizes PTSD as a “trauma-and-stressor-related-disorder” that happens when the symptoms of an acute stress response persist for over a […]

Autoimmune hepatitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

So, an autoimmune disease is this special sort of disease, where your own immune cells have gone rogue and start to attack your own cells, right? Hepatitis happens to mean inflammation of the liver, so it’s reasonable to say that autoimmune hepatitis is this resulting inflammation of your liver tissue, because they’re being attacked by […]