Complete works of Swami Vevekananda.
Volume 1. Lectures and Discourses.
The Gita 1. (Delivered in San Francisco, on May 26, 1900.) This article was recorded by Ida Ansell in
shorthand. As, however, Swamiji’s speed was too great for her in her early days, dots
are put in the articles to indicate the omissions, while the words within square brackets are
added by way of linking up the disconnected parts. To understand the Gita requires its historical
background. The Gita is a commentary on the Upanishads. The Upanishads are the Bible of
India. They occupy the same place as the New Testament does. There are [more than] a hundred
books comprising the Upanishads, some very small and some big, each a separate treatise.
The Upanishads do not reveal the life of any teacher, but simply teach principles. They
are [as it were] shorthand notes taken down of discussion in [learned assemblies], generally
in the courts of kings. The word Upanishad may mean “sittings” [or “sitting near a teacher”].
Those of you who may have studied some of the Upanishads can understand how they are
condensed shorthand sketches. After long discussions had been held, they were taken down, possibly
from memory. The difficulty is that you get very little of the background. Only the luminous
points are mentioned there. The origin of ancient Sanskrit is 5000 B.C.; the Upanishads
[are at least] two thousand years before that. Nobody knows [exactly] how old they are. The
Gita takes the ideas of the Upanishads and in [some] cases the very words. They are strung
together with the idea of bringing out, in a compact, condensed, and systematic form,
the whole subject the Upanishads deal with. The [original] scriptures of the Hindus are
called the Vedas. They were so vast — the mass of writings — that if the texts alone
were brought here, this room would not contain them. Many of them are lost. They were divided
into branches, each branch put into the head of certain priests and kept alive by memory.
Such men still exist. They will repeat book after book of the Vedas without missing a
single intonation. The larger portion of the Vedas has disappeared. The small portion left
makes a whole library by itself. The oldest of these contains the hymns of the Rig-Veda.
It is the aim of the modern scholar to restore [the sequence of the Vedic compositions].
The old, orthodox idea is quite different, as your orthodox idea of the Bible is quite
different from the modern scholar’s. The Vedas are divided into two portions: one the Upanishads,
the philosophical portion, the other the work portion. We will try to give a little idea of the work
portion. It consists of rituals and hymns, various hymns addressed to various gods. The
ritual portion is composed of ceremonies, some of them very elaborate. A great many
priests are required. The priestly function became a science by itself, owing to the elaboration
of the ceremonials. Gradually the popular idea of veneration grew round these hymns
and rituals. The gods disappeared and in their place were left the rituals. That was the
curious development in India. The orthodox Hindu [the Mimâmsaka] does not believe in
gods, the unorthodox believe in them. If you ask the orthodox Hindu what the meaning is
of these gods in the Vedas, [he will not be able to give any satisfactory answer]. The
priests sing these hymns and pour libations and offering into the fire. When you ask the
orthodox Hindu the meaning of this, he says that words have the power to produce certain
effects. That is all. There is all the natural and supernatural power that ever existed.
The Vedas are simply words that have the mystical power to produce effects if the sound intonation
is right. If one sound is wrong it will not do. Each one must be perfect. [Thus] what
in other religions is called prayer disappeared and the Vedas became the gods. So you see
the tremendous importance that was attached to the words of the Vedas. These are the eternal
words out of which the whole universe has been produced. There cannot be any thought
without the word. Thus whatever there is in this world is the manifestation of thought,
and thought can only manifest itself through words. This mass of words by which the unmanifested
thought becomes manifest, that is what is meant by the Vedas. It follows that the external
existence of everything [depends on the Vedas, for thought] does not exist without the word.
If the word “horse” did not exist, none could think of a horse. [So] there must be [an intimate
relation between] thought, word, and the external object. What are these words [in reality]?
The Vedas. They do not call it Sanskrit language at all. It is Vedic language, a divine language.
Sanskrit is a degenerate form. So are all other languages. There is no language older
than Vedic. You may ask, “Who wrote the Vedas?” They were not written. The words are the Vedas.
A word is Veda, if I can pronounce it rightly. Then it will immediately produce the [desired]
effect. This mass of Vedas eternally exists and all
the world is the manifestation of this mass of words. Then when the cycle ends, all this
manifestation of energy becomes finer and finer, becomes only words, then thought. In
the next cycle, first the thought changes into words and then out of those words [the
whole universe] is produced. If there is something here that is not in the Vedas, that is your
delusion. It does not exist. [Numerous] books upon that subject alone defend
the Vedas. If you tell [their authors], that the Vedas must have been pronounced by men
first, [they will simply laugh]. You never heard of any [man uttering them for the first
time]. Take Buddha’s words. There is a tradition that he lived and spoke these words [many
times before]. If the Christian stands up and says, “My religion is a historical religion
and therefore, yours is wrong and ours is true,” [the Mimamsaka replies], “Yours being
historical, you confess that a man invented it nineteen hundred years ago. That which
is true must be infinite and eternal. That is the one test of truth. It never decays,
it is always the same. You confess your religion was created by such-and-such a man. The Vedas
were not. By no prophets or anything. … Only infinite words, infinite by their very nature,
from which the whole universe comes and goes.” In the abstract it is perfectly correct. … The
sound must be the beginning of creation. There must be germ sounds like germ plasm. There
cannot be any ideas without the words. … Wherever there are sensations, ideas, emotions, there
must be words. The difficulty is when they say that these four books are the Vedas and
nothing else. [Then] the Buddhist will stand up and say, “Ours are Vedas. They were revealed
to us later on.” That cannot be. Nature does not go on in that way. Nature does not manifest
her laws bit by bit, an inch of gravitation today and [another inch] tomorrow. No, every
law is complete. There is no evolution in law at all. It is [given] once and for ever.
It is all nonsense, this “new religion and better inspiration,” and all that. It means
nothing. There may be a hundred thousand laws and man may know only a few today. We discover
them — that is all. Those old priests with their tremendous [claims about eternal words],
having dethroned the gods, took the place of the gods. [They said], “You do not understand
the power of words. We know how to use them. We are the living gods of the world. Pay us;
we will manipulate the words, and you will get what you want. Can you pronounce the words
yourself? You cannot, for, mind you, one mistake will produce the opposite effect. You want
to be rich, handsome, have a long life, a fine husband?” Only pay the priest and keep
quiet! Yet there is another side. The ideal of the
first part of the Vedas is entirely different from the ideal of the other part, the Upanishads.
The ideal of the first part coincides with [that of] all other religions of the world
except the Vedanta. The ideal is enjoyment here and hereafter — man and wife, husband
and children. Pay your dollar, and the priest will give you a certificate, and you will
have a happy time afterwards in heaven. You will find all your people there and have this
merry-go-round without end. No tears, no weeping — only laughing. No stomach-ache, but yet
eating. No headache, but yet [parties]. That, considered the priests, was the highest goal
of man. There is another idea in this philosophy which
is according to your modern ideas. Man is a slave of nature, and slave eternally he
has got to remain. We call it Karma. Karma means law, and it applies everywhere. Everything
is bound by Karma. “Is there no way out?” “No! Remain slaves all through the years — fine
slaves. We will manipulate the words so that you will only have the good and not the bad
side of all — if you will pay [us] enough.” That was the ideal of [the Mimamsakas]. These
are the ideals which are popular throughout the ages. The vast mass of mankind are never
thinkers. Even if they try to think, the [effect of the] vast mass of superstitions on them
is terrible. The moment they weaken, one blow comes, and the backbone breaks into twenty
pieces. They can only be moved by lures and threats. They can never move of their own
accord. They must be frightened, horrified, or terrorised, and they are your slaves for
ever. They have nothing else to do but to pay and obey. Everything else is done by the
priest. … How much easier religion becomes! You see, you have nothing to do. Go home and
sit quietly. Somebody is doing the whole thing for you. Poor, poor animals! Side by side, there was the other system.
The Upanishads are diametrically opposite in all their conclusions. First of all, the
Upanishads believe in God, the creator of the universe, its ruler. You find later on
[the idea of a benign Providence]. It is an entirely opposite [conception]. Now, although
we hear the priest, the ideal is much more subtle. Instead of many gods they made one
God. The second idea, that you are all bound by
the law of Karma, the Upanishads admit, but they declare the way out. The goal of man
is to go beyond law. And enjoyment can never be the goal, because enjoyment can only be
in nature. In the third place, the Upanishads condemn
all the sacrifices and say that is mummery. That may give you all you want, but it is
not desirable, for the more you get, the more you [want], and you run round and round in
a circle eternally, never getting to the end — enjoying and weeping. Such a thing as
eternal happiness is impossible anywhere. It is only a child’s dream. The same energy
becomes joy and sorrow. I have changed my psychology a bit today.
I have found the most curious fact. You have a certain idea and you do not want to have
it, and you think of something else, and the idea you want to suppress is entirely suppressed.
What is that idea? I saw it come out in fifteen minutes. It came out and staggered me. It
was strong, and it came in such a violent and terrible fashion [that] I thought here
was a madman. And when it was over, all that had happened [was a suppression of the previous
emotion]. What came out? It was my own bad impression which had to be worked out. “Nature
will have her way. What can suppression do?” [Gita, III. 33.] That is a terrible [statement]
in the Gita. It seems it may be a vain struggle after all. You may have a hundred thousand
[urges competing] at the same time. You may repress [them], but the moment the spring
rebounds, the whole thing is there again. [But there is hope]. If you are powerful enough,
you can divide your consciousness into twenty parts all at the same time. I am changing
my psychology. Mind grows. That is what the Yogis say. There is one passion and it rouses
another, and the first one dies. If you are angry, and then happy, the next moment the
anger passes away. Out of that anger you manufactured the next state. These states are always interchangeable.
Eternal happiness and misery are a child’s dream. The Upanishads point out that the goal
of man is neither misery nor happiness, but we have to be master of that out of which
these are manufactured. We must be masters of the situation at its very root, as it were. The other point of divergence is: the Upanishads
condemn all rituals, especially those that involve the killing of animals. They declare
those all nonsense. One school of old philosophers says that you must kill such an animal at
a certain time if the effect is to be produced. [You may reply], “But [there is] also the
sin of taking the life of the animal; you will have to suffer for that.” They say that
is all nonsense. How do you know what is right and what is wrong? Your mind says so? Who
cares what your mind says? What nonsense are you talking? You are setting your mind against
the scriptures. If your mind says something and the Vedas say something else, stop your
mind and believe in the Vedas. If they say, killing a man is right, that is right. If
you say, “No, my conscience says [otherwise,” it won’t do]. The moment you believe in any
book as the eternal word, as sacred, no more can you question. I do not see how you people
here believe in the Bible whenever you say about [it], “How wonderful those words are,
how right and how good!” Because, if you believe in the Bible as the word of God, you have
no right to judge at all. The moment you judge, you think you are higher than the Bible. [Then]
what is the use of the Bible to you? The priests say, “We refuse to make the comparison with
your Bible or anybody’s. It is no use comparing, because — what is the authority? There it
ends. If you think something is not right, go and get it right according to the Vedas.” The Upanishads believe in that, [but they
have a higher standard too]. On the one hand, they do not want to overthrow the Vedas, and
on the other they see these animal sacrifices and the priests stealing everybody’s money.
But in the psychology they are all alike. All the differences have been in the philosophy,
[regarding] the nature of the soul. Has it a body and a mind? And is the mind only a
bundle of nerves, the motor nerves and the sensory nerves? Psychology, they all take
for granted, is a perfect science. There cannot be any difference there. All the fight has
been regarding philosophy — the nature of the soul, and God, and all that. Then another great difference between the
priests and the Upanishads. The Upanishads say, renounce. That is the test of everything.
Renounce everything. It is the creative faculty that brings us into all this entanglement.
The mind is in its own nature when it is calm. The moment you can calm it, that [very] moment
you will know the truth. What is it that is whirling the mind? Imagination, creative activity.
Stop creation and you know the truth. All power of creation must stop, and then you
know the truth at once. On the other hand, the priests are all for
[creation]. Imagine a species of life [in which there is no creative activity. It is
unthinkable]. The people had to have a plan [of evolving a stable society. A system of
rigid selection was adopted. For instance,] no people who are blind and halt can be married.
[As a result] you will find so much less deformity [in India] than in any other country in the
world. Epileptics and insane [people] are very rare [there]. That is owing to direct
selection. The priests say, “Let them become Sannyâsins.” On the other hand, the Upanishads
say, “Oh no, [the] earth’s best and finest [and] freshest flowers should be laid upon
the altar. The strong, the young, with sound intellect and sound body — they must struggle
for the truth.” So with all these divergences of opinion,
I have told you that the priests already differentiated themselves into a separate caste. The second
is the caste of the kings. … All the Upanishadic philosophy is from the brains of kings, not
priests. There [runs] an economic struggle through every religious struggle. This animal
called man has some religious influence, but he is guided by economy. Individuals are guided
by something else, but the mass of mankind never made a move unless economy was [involved].
You may [preach a religion that may not be perfect in every detail], but if there is
an economic background [to it], and you have the most [ardent champions] to preach it,
you can convince a whole country. … Whenever any religion succeeds, it must have
economic value. Thousands of similar sects will be struggling for power, but only those
who meet the real economic problem will have it. Man is guided by the stomach. He walks
and the stomach goes first and the head afterwards. Have you not seen that? It will take ages
for the head to go first. By the time a man is sixty years of age, he is called out of
[the world]. The whole of life is one delusion, and just when you begin to see things the
way they are, you are snatched off. So long as the stomach went first you were all right.
When children’s dreams begin to vanish and you begin to look at things the way they are,
the head goes. Just when the head goes first, [you go out]. [For] the religion of the Upanishads to be
popularised was a hard task. Very little economy is there, but tremendous altruism. … The Upanishads had very little kingdom, although
they were discovered by kings that held all the royal power in their hands. So the struggle
… began to be fiercer. Its culminating point came two thousand years after, in Buddhism.
The seed of Buddhism is here, [in] the ordinary struggle between the king and the priest;
and [in the struggle] all religion declined. One wanted to sacrifice religion, the other
wanted to cling to the sacrifices, to Vedic gods, etc. Buddhism … broke the chains of
the masses. All castes and creeds alike became equal in a minute. So the great religious
ideas in India exist, but have yet to be preached: otherwise they do no good. … In every country it is the priest who is conservative,
for two reasons — because it is his bread and because he can only move with the people.
All priests are not strong. If the people say, “Preach two thousand gods,” the priests
will do it. They are the servants of the congregation who pay them. God does not pay them. So blame
yourselves before blaming the priests. You can only get the government and the religion
and the priesthood you deserve, and no better. So the great struggle began in India and it
comes to one of its culminating points in the Gita. When it was causing fear that all
India was going to be broken up between [the] two … [groups], there rose this man Krishna,
and in the Gita he tries to reconcile the ceremony and the philosophy of the priests
and the people. Krishna is loved and worshipped in the same way as you do Christ. The difference
is only in the age. The Hindus keep the birthday of Krishna as you do Christ’s. Krishna lived
five thousand years ago and his life is full of miracles, some of them very similar to
those in the life of Christ. The child was born in prison. The father took him away and
put him with the shepherds. All children born in that year were ordered to be killed. … He
was killed; that was his fate. Krishna was a married man. There are thousands
of books about him. They do not interest me much. The Hindus are great in telling stories,
you see. [If] the Christian missionaries tell one story from their Bible, the Hindus will
produce twenty stories. You say the whale swallowed Jonah; the Hindus say someone swallowed
an elephant. … Since I was a child I have heard about Krishna’s life. I take it for
granted there must have been a man called Krishna, and his Gita shows he has [left]
a wonderful book. I told you, you can understand the character of a man by analysing the fables
about him. The fables have the nature [of decorations]. You must find they are all polished
and manipulated to fit into the character. For instance, take Buddha. The central idea
[is] sacrifice. There are thousands of folklore, but in every case the sacrifice must have
been kept up. There are thousands of stories about Lincoln, about some characteristic of
that great man. You take all the fables and find the general idea and [know] that that
was the central character of the man. You find in Krishna that non-attachment is the
central idea. He does not need anything. He does not want anything. He works for work’s
sake. “Work for work’s sake. Worship for worship’s sake. Do good because it is good to do good.
Ask no more.” That must have been the character of the man. Otherwise these fables could not
be brought down to the one idea of non-attachment. The Gita is not his only sermon. … He is the most rounded man I know of, wonderfully
developed equally in brain and heart and hand. Every moment [of his] is alive with activity,
either as a gentleman, warrior, minister, or something else. Great as a gentleman, as
a scholar, as a poet. This all-rounded and wonderful activity and combination of brain
and heart you see in the Gita and other books. Most wonderful heart, exquisite language,
and nothing can approach it anywhere. This tremendous activity of the man — the impression
is still there. Five thousand years have passed and he has influenced millions and millions.
Just think what an influence this man has over the whole world, whether you know it
or not. My regard for him is for his perfect sanity. No cobwebs in that brain, no superstition.
He knows the use of everything, and when it is necessary to [assign a place to each],
he is there. Those that talk, go everywhere, question about the mystery of the Vedas, etc.,
they do not know the truth. They are no better than frauds. There is a place in the Vedas
[even] for superstition, for ignorance. The whole secret is to find out the proper place
for everything. Then that heart! He is the first man, way
before Buddha, to open the door of religion to every caste. That wonderful mind! That
tremendously active life! Buddha’s activity was on one plane, the plane of teaching. He
could not keep his wife and child and become a teacher at the same time. Krishna preached
in the midst of the battlefield. “He who in the midst of intense activity finds himself
in the greatest calmness, and in the greatest peace finds intense activity, that is the
greatest [Yogi as well as the wisest man].” [Gita, IV. 18.]
It means nothing to this man — the flying of missiles about him. Calm and sedate he
goes on discussing the problems of life and death. Each one of the prophets is the best
commentary on his own teaching. If you want to know what is meant by the doctrine of the
New Testament, you go to Mr. So-and-so. [But] read again and again [the four Gospels and
try to understand their import, in the light of the wonderful life of the Master as depicted
there]. The great men think, and you and I [also] think. But there is a difference. We
think and our bodies do not follow. Our actions do not harmonise with our thoughts. Our words
have not the power of the words that become Vedas. … Whatever they think must be accomplished.
If they say, “I do this,” the body does it. Perfect obedience. This is the end. You can
think yourself God in one minute, but you cannot be [God]. That is the difficulty. They
become what they think. We will become [only] by [degrees]. You see, that was about Krishna and his time.
In the next lecture we will know more of his book.